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What is the web?
World Wide Web aka. ‘The Web’ is a way of exchanging information between computers on the Internet
A network of pages containing images, text, and sound can be viewed using browser software.
Internet: The global infrastructure which facilitates the data transfer
Browser: A software application for accessing the information on the World Wide Web.

What is a web component?
Web Page: A container to hold texts, images videos, and sounds
Web Site: A collection of related web pages and associated items
Web Server: A computer that stores web site and delivers web pages on client’s request
• Universal Resource Locator (URL): aka. Web Address is a pointer to a web site stored on a web server


Web Application flow.

Web Application Development
• Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
• Cascading Stylesheet (CSS)
• Client-side Scripting (JavaScript)
• Server-side Programming (.NET/PHP/J2EE)
• Databases (SQL Server / MySQL / Oracle / MongoDB)


Software Engineering
• Software Engineering is the science and art of building significant software systems that are:
– on time
– on budget
– with acceptable performance
– with correct operation

Web Engineering
• Web engineering is the study of the process, used to create high quality Web-based applications
• Web engineering draws heavily on the principles and management activities found in software engineering processes
• Web engineering extends Software Engineering to Web applications
Software Engineering Process

Web Engineering process

Web Engineering
• The application of systematic and quantifiable approaches to cost-effective analysis, design, implementation, testing, operation, and maintenance of high-quality web applications

Defining Web Application
• The application of systematic and quantifiable approaches to cost-effective analysis, design, implementation, testing, operation, and maintenance of high-quality web applications
• Application development on the Web remains largely ad hoc.
– Spontaneous, one-time events
– Individual experience
– Little or no documentation for code/design
• Short-term savings lead to long-term problems in operation, maintenance, usability, etc.


The case of Web Engineering
• Top project pitfalls (Cutter, 2000)
– 84% – Failure to meet business objectives
– 79% – Project schedule delays
– 63% – Budget overrun
– 53% – Lack of functionality
• Web Engineering’s solution:
– Clearly defined goals & objectives
– Systematic, phased development
– Careful planning
– Iterative & continuous auditing of the entire process


Categories of Web Applications


• Document centric website
• Interactive and transactional web applications
• Workflow-based web applications
• Collaborative and social web applications
• Portal-oriented web applications
• Ubiquitous web applications
Document-centric Websites
• Originator to Web applications
• Static HTML documents
• Manual updates
• Pros
Simple, stable, short response times
• Cons
High management costs for frequent updates & large collections
– More prone to inconsistent/redundant info

• Example: static home pages


Interactive and Transactional Web Applications


• Come with the introduction of HTML forms
• Dynamic page creation
– Web pages and links to other pages generated dynamically based on user input
• Content updates -> Transactions
– Database connectivity
– Increased complexity
• Examples: news sites, booking systems, online banking


Workflow-based Applications


• Designed to handle business processes across departments, organizations & enterprises


• Business logic defines the structure


• High complexity; autonomous entities


• Examples: B2B & e-Government
Collaborative & Social Web Applications
• Unstructured, cooperative environments
Support shared information workspaces to create, edit and manage shared information
– Interpersonal communication is paramount

• Automates processes consisting of series of steps
• The Social Web
– Moving towards communities of interest
• Examples: Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, etc.


Web Portals
• One specially-designed at a website which brings information together from diverse sources in a uniform way
• Specialized portals
– Business portals
– Marketplace portals
– Community portals

• Each information source gets its dedicated area

Characteristics of Web Applications
• How do Web applications differ from traditional applications?
• 3 dimensions
– Product-based
– Usage-based
– Development-based


Product-based Characteristics
• Product-related characteristics constitute the “building blocks” of a Web application
• Content
– Document character & multimedia
– Quality demands: current, exact, consistent, reliable
• Navigation Structure (Hypertext)
– Non-linearity
– Potential problems: Disorientation & cognitive overload
• User interface (Presentation)
– Appearance
– Self-explanation

Usage-based Characteristics
– Users vary in numbers, cultural background, devices, h/w, s/w, location etc
● Social Context (Users)
– Spontaneity – scalability
– Heterogeneous groups
● Technical Context (Network & Devices)
– Quality-of-Service
● Natural Context (Place & Time)
– Globality
– Availability


Development-based Characteristics
● The Development Team
– Multidisciplinary – print publishing, s/w development, marketing & computing, art & technology
● Technical Infrastructure
– Lack of control on the client-side
● Integration
Internal – with existing legacy systems
External – with Web services
– Integration issues: correct interaction, guaranteed QoS